Are you wondering if your child has a sensory disorder?
Maybe a teacher, occupational therapist, psychologist or doctor has talked to you about sensory disorder and your child. They might have also used the words sensory processing disorder. It is scary to worry if something is wrong with your child. It is frightening to hear words you have never heard before to describe your child. In this blog post, I will help you understand more about sensory disorder or sensory processing disorder.
In this blog, we are going to talk about:
-your sensory child;
-the types of sensory disorders;
-what sensory processing disorder means;
-sensory processing disorder vs. autism;
-understanding more about a sensory disorder diagnosis;
-and finally sensory processing disorder treatment.
There are a lot of different words used to describe the same thing by different people. Throughout this blog, I will also use sensory disorder and sensory processing disorder to mean the same thing. Occupational therapists tend to use the words sensory processing disorder, parents often use the words sensory disorder. Sometimes parents use the word sensory impairment as well. In blogs, articles and books elsewhere you might see sensory processing disorder abbreviated to SPD. I will not use that abbreviation in this blog post. In older blogs, articles and books you might see the words sensory integration disorder. That is an older term occupational therapists used in the past.
What is sensory disorder?
Sensory disorder or sensory processing disorder means that the brain has some sort of sensory impairment. The brain has difficulty receiving, understanding and responding to the senses. There are the five senses that you probably know about: what you see, hear, taste, touch and smell. It might surprise you to know that there are more than just five senses in your body. In fact, there is not quite an agreement on how many senses you actually have. Some say you have more than 20 senses. Most people think there are five senses. In occupational therapy, we used to say there were seven senses. We added your sense of balance and your sense of movement to those first five senses. Yet, more recently, we talk about another sense, Interoception, when talking about humans and in particular sensory disorders. Interoception is the eighth sense. This eight sense, Interoception, tells you that you are hungry, thirsty, breathing or need to go to the bathroom. Sensory disorder means that your brain has difficulty receiving information from, understanding and responding to any or all of these eight senses. Some older vocabulary used to describe sensory processing disorder is sensory integration disorder; you might still see and hear that sometimes too. Sensory disorder, sensory processing disorder and sensory integration disorder are all used. Sensory disorder is most often used in layman’s terms. Sensory processing disorder is used by occupational therapists, psychologists and doctors. Sensory integration disorder is an older term used by occupational therapists.
Sensory sensitivity explained.
It is important to know that you are a sensory being as human. You have sensory sensitivity; you are sensitive to your senses. It might help to replace with word sensitivity with preferences, meaning things you like and things you do not like. We all have sensory preferences. You do too. You are on a sensory spectrum, so to speak, which means you enjoy or dislike a range of information from your senses. Some people like perfume. You may not like strong smells. However, you may like spicy food. Yet other people do not. Some people like a heavy quilt to sleep. You might like to sleep with only a light sheet and a breeze from a fan or open window. Moreover, your range of sensory preferences can change from day to day. That does not make you or your child have a sensory disorder or some sort of sensory impairment.
More examples of sensory sensitivity.
Think about this example, if you are tired, a noisy household might bother you, you might crave peace and quiet. However, other times you might love having loud music on in the background and lots of family visiting your house. Liking quiet one day and noise the next day does not mean you have a sensory disorder. In the same vein, just because your child does not like the itch of a wool sweater does not mean your child has a sensory disorder. On the other hand, if your child has great difficulty tolerating many types of clothes, even those without an itch factor, and has meltdowns about getting dressed every single day and the change of seasons and corresponding change in clothing type is also extra challenging, then a sensory processing disorder might be the cause.
The difference between hyposensitivity and hypersensitivity.
As I shared above, you have sensory sensitivity. We all do. However, a sensory impairment or sensory disorder and difficulty receiving information from the senses means that your child might show hyposensitivity. Hypo means low or below normal. Hyposensitivity means that your child’s brain receives information from the senses less or with less intensity. Therefore, a child with a sensory disorder and hyposensitivity might show signs of sensory disorder like constantly touching things. Hyposensitivity in this example, means touching things that is quite excessive and gets in the way of other learning and play. It is OK that your child really likes to cuddle with a blanket and rub a soft toy to go to sleep or comfort themselves; this is not a sign of a sensory impairment. It is not OK that your child cannot stop going around the room and touching everything in it, not being able to stop. That is one sign of hyposensitivity manifested as excessive touching. Sometimes hyposensitivity is dangerous and a child will not feel pain as intensely as they should. A child with hyposensitivity might not feel a cut or a burn or when they are hurt. In contrast, in the section above I talked about a child having great difficulty all of the time with the feeling of clothing. That is an example of hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity is the opposite of hyposensitivity. Hyper means over, above normal or high. People who are hypersensitive experience sensory overload. Therefore, a child with hypersensitivity will feel things from one or more sense too much and avoid them. The opposite, a child with hyposensitivity will not feel things from one or more sense enough and seek them out. You might also hear or see the terms sensory avoider (a child who avoids sensory experiences) and sensory seeker (a child who seeks out or craves sensory experiences). These, in excess, are symptoms of sensory impairment, sensory disorder, or sensory processing disorder.
Help for Hypersensitivity
Some children and adults with hypersensitivity as part of their sensory disorder have difficulty going out to places that are noisy, busy or bright. Grocery stores, restaurants, movie theatres, arenas, museums cause sensory overload. To help with hypersensitivity, here at Sensory Friendly Solutions we have developed a free sensory-friendly finder (link) where you can search for events and places that are sensory-friendly, often with less noise, less busyness and less bright light. You can find *link* sensory-friendly events, places and services in your daily life in the Sensory-Friendly Finder. You can also add *link*what you find is sensory-friendly to share that helpful information with other sensory-friendly seekers just like you.
What is sensory-friendly clothing?
For children with hypersensitivity to touch or the tactile system or tactile sense you might have heard or seen sensory friendly clothing as recommended. Sensory friendly clothing has things like no seams, no tags and is often very soft. In fact, have you may have already noticed and purchased regular clothing with either no tags or easily removed tags that don’t leaving behind any fabric on the seam when torn off? Those are examples of sensory friendly clothing,
A sensory processing disorder diagnosis.
You might have a sensory child but that does not mean your child has a sensory disorder. Children learn through their senses. In addition, your baby explores and learns from their senses in a different way from your toddler or your school-aged child. Furthermore, just like you, your child might be tired, hungry or thirsty and that affects their sensitivity to their other senses too. Your child might have different sensory preferences than you. You might like a white noise machine to sleep and your child might need a blackout curtain and silent house to sleep. Your child might love to hang upside down and go on roller coasters and you might feel a little unsteady climbing a ladder. We all have different sensory preferences. Your sensory preferences can change over time too. However, if your child’s senses seem to be interrupting your ability to get through the day as a family, at home, their day at daycare or school there is cause for concern. Especially if your child’s sensory differences are interrupting your child’s ability to learn or play on a regular basis, you may be wondering about a sensory disorder diagnosis or sensory processing disorder diagnosis.
Key questions to ask if you think your child has a sensory disorder.
The most important thing when wondering if a sensory disorder is the problem and you should see someone about it is to ask yourself this question:
Is this a regular and repeated sensory problem that is preventing my child from learning and playing?
It is OK that your baby does not like loud noises and is afraid of them.
It is OK if your young child covers their ears when they hear a siren.
However, if your child refuses to go to the playground today because a vehicle with a siren went by when they were playing there yesterday, then that is a sensory problem.
Another question you can ask if you are wondering if a sensory disorder is the problem:
Did the sensory problem happen just once?
Does this sensory problem only happen when my child is tired?
That is less likely to be a sensory disorder.
Alternatively, does this sensory issue happen all the time?
Is this sensory sensitivity happening more and more?
That is more likely to be a sensory disorder.
When you suspect a sensory disorder, talk to your pediatric occupational therapist, psychologist, family doctor or pediatrician. Occupational therapists have the expertise to assess for sensory processing disorder symptoms and provide that information to your child’s psychologist, family doctor or pediatrician who can make a formal diagnosis. I also want you to know that some doctors do not recognize sensory disorder as a diagnosis. If you are worried about sensory disorder and your child, it is important to have an open, honest discussion with your doctor and other professionals on your child’s health care team. It is important to understand and to be understood when talking about sensory disorders.
Four people to talk to when you are worried about sensory disorder and your child:
Let’s talk about sensory processing disorder vs. autism.
You might be wondering if sensory processing disorder is autism. Sensory disorder and autism are different disorders but sometimes, they are linked. Sensory disorder is not autism. They are not the same disorder. Nevertheless, people with autism often have sensory issues, and that can make it confusing. Sometimes, especially for autism, we use different words; we call things sensory sensitivities, sensory issues, sensory difficulties, sensory challenges or sensory overload. Moreover, we use them inter-changeably. So, is sensory sensitivity a sign of autism? Yes, hypersensitivity (or over-responsiveness) and hyposensitivity (or under-responsiveness) are used to diagnose autism. However, it is important to know that sensory disorder alone is not an indication of autism. Therefore, a child with autism might have a sensory disorder as part of their diagnosis, but not every child who has autism has a sensory disorder. Likewise, a child with sensory disorder alone does not have autism. People with autism have symptoms like poor social and emotional skills, difficulties or delays in communication, restricted interests and/or other criteria to have autism. Sensory problems can be part of the many difficulties that someone with autism has. You can read more about in my blog post sensory autism *link*.
To summarize and help you understand the difference between sensory processing disorder and autism:
What are the types of sensory processing disorders?
Did you know that there are different types of sensory disorders? Sometimes, three broad categories are used to classify sensory disorder:
Sometimes people ask further, what are the three patterns of sensory processing disorders?
When sensory disorders are sometimes explained describing three main patterns of sensory processing problems, these are labelled as:
Using just those three patterns is oversimplifying things. It is important to know that sensory disorder is not easily classified into just these three patterns because they are more easily understood than the other types of sensory disorder. All of the different sensory disorders can be very confusing. I can see why people try to make it easier and simplify an explanation to make is easier to understand the types of sensory processing disorder. Your senses are complex. Occupational therapists study for many years to understand the senses, the sensory systems and sensory processing disorder. I will continue to write blogs to explain sensory disorders and help to you learn and understand all the different types.
To review the types of sensory processing disorder, we use these three categories:
Sensory modulation means how we organize sensory information. Three common patterns of sensory disorder are hyposensitive, hypersensitive and sensory seeking. They all fall under this sub-type.
However, there are more than just three patterns of sensory disorder. There are also sensory disorders in movement, or sensory-motor disorders. A sensory-motor disorder means difficulties in posture and movement. Sometimes words like dyspraxia or development coordination disorder are also used to describe those sensory-motor or movement disorders. Posture means how you sit, stand or move against gravity. A sensory-motor disorder means difficulties in movement or moving. Your child might appear clumsy or have difficulty with coordination if they have a sensory-motor disorder.
Some sensory disorders are under a sub-type called sensory discrimination. Sensory discrimination means telling the difference between variations in a single sense. So for example, some children with sensory disorder have difficulty hearing the difference between the words bat and cat when they do not have hearing loss. Their brains simply cannot distinguish between the two words. That is an indication of a type of auditory sensory discrimination disorder. With sensory discrimination disorder there can be difficulty in perception in each of the senses. It is helpful to know that wearing glasses or a hearing aid or using a wheelchair are not signs of a sensory disorder.
What exactly does sensory processing mean?
Processing means a series of actions to get a specific result. Remember that our brains receive, understand and response to our senses. Our brains have to organize information from our eyes, ears, nose, mouth, skin, inner ear (balance), muscles and joints (movement) and organs (interoception) in order for our body to respond to it. Your sense of balance and head movement is called your vestibular sense. Your sense of your body movement is also called proprioception. You brain is complex. Your senses are complex. You have many senses. Not just five senses, but at least eight. So sensory processing sensitivity can affect any of the senses. Thus, there are many types of sensory processing disorder.
Here is a list of your eight senses:
Can a child outgrow sensory processing disorder?
This is one of the most common questions asked about sensory processing disorder. The short answer is, no. A child cannot outgrow sensory processing disorder. If a child has a sensory processing disorder, they will not outgrow it. In fact, if left untreated, it can make life more difficult into the teenage years and on to adulthood. When sensory disorder is untreated, it can prevent your child from learning and developing important life skills. On the other hand, it is important to recognize that a child’s sensory-motor development changes from infancy through childhood, changes in normal sensory-motor development does not indicate a sensory disorder. Sensory processing is different for a baby, toddler, preschooler, school-aged child and teen. Sensory issues in children are not always easy to figure out. If you are wondering about sensory disorder and your child of any age, at the very least, see an occupational therapist and talk to your doctor. Remember that a sensory disorder affects everyday life and makes play and learning difficult for children so it is important to identify.
What about sensory processing disorder in adults?
While sensory disorders are more often associated with children, adults have sensory disorders too. Most often, sensory disorder symptoms have existed since childhood. Sometimes a sensory disorder is better managed in adulthood because adults have more choice and control over their daily life and thus can choose to live their life in a way that avoids some of the challenges brought on by sensory processing disorder. Nevertheless, adults can seek treatment for sensory disorder too.
How do I help a child with sensory processing disorder?
Did you know that there is sensory processing disorder treatment for both children and adults? A common treatment for sensory disorder is occupational therapy. An occupational therapist will fully assess your child and then develop a treatment plan for your child. It is important for the occupational therapist to figure out what sub-type(s) of sensory disorder are present. Many occupational therapists use a special treatment called sensory integration to help a child or adult with sensory disorder. Sensory integration involves both sensory and motor (movement) activities, designed by the occupational therapist so that through repetition and practice over time the brain’s ability to receive, understand and respond information from the senses is more organized.
6 helpful tips when sensory disorder is a problem.
You can also add *link*what you find is sensory-friendly to share that helpful information with other sensory-friendly seekers just like you.